Motion Mountain

Tangles of strands - a conjecture

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This preprint is written to make you relish physics. All of it.

Free pdf of paperA conjecture on deducing general relativity and the standard model with its fundamental constants from rational tangles of strands. 59 pages, 8 MB.

It appears possible to deduce black holes, general relativity and the standard model of elementary particles from one-dimensional strands that fluctuate at the Planck scale. This appears possible as long as only switches of skew strand crossings are observable, but not the strands themselves. Woven fluctuating strands behave like horizons and imply black hole entropy, the field equations of general relativity, and cosmological observations. Tangled fluctuating strands in flat space imply Dirac’s equation. The possible families of unknotted rational tangles produce the spectrum of elementary particles. Fluctuating rational tangles also yield the gauge groups U(1), broken SU(2), and SU(3), produce all Feynman diagrams of the standard model, and exclude any unknown elementary particle, gauge group, and Feynman diagram. The conjecture agrees with all known experimental data. Predictions for experiments arise, and the fundamental constants of the standard model can be calculated. Objections are discussed. Predictions and calculations allow testing the conjecture. As an example, an ab initio estimate of the fine structure constant is outlined.


It is sometimes claimed that the standard model is 'ugly'. In contrast, the preprint proposes that the standard model is incredibly simple, unique, without alternative, and astonishingly beautiful: the full, unmodified standard model is due to strands fluctuating at the Planck scale.


When we look at the starry sky, we admire the vast space, the coloured twinkling stars and the deep blackness. The preprint proposes a full explanation for the colours of everything we see - including the origin of the fine structure constant. The proposal also appears to explain the origin, motion and details of space, of particles, and of horizons.


A more extensive, more fascinating but also older presentation is given here:

Free pdf of vol. 6 of Motion
The quest for a final theory leads to a proposal with testable predictions, to estimates of the W/Z and Higgs/Z boson mass ratios, and to a new approximation for the fine structure constant and the other fundamental constants. 480 pages, 36 MB.

The preview:


Feel free to contribute issues, criticisms or suggestions to the wiki at Past discussions about the strand model can be found here. Some background is given on my old blog on fundamental research and on my old blog on teaching.

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